A yet higher level of resolution and complexity in simulation became possible with the deployment of massively parallel computers such as the Connection Machine 5 (CM-5).
Working with Chung-Pei Ma of Caltech, MIT's Edmund Bertschinger developed a 23 million particle simulation based on a cold plus hot dark matter model. However the nature of the dark matter represented by the particles in the actual simulation was not specified; it remains "scale-free." The resolution was very high, sufficient to resolve galactic-scale clumping of dark matter. And the spatial range covered was large, spanning ..... orders of magnitude. Both these features permitted the MIT scientists to trace the variation in gravitational fields due to the progressively "lumpy" distribut ion of dark matter as the model evolved forward in time.
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